Monday, January 25, 2010

Community Radio as Sharing Media

Community radio is established to serves its audiences. The activists should be able to share all of community interest as their broadcast programs. Most of community radio doesn't have a good management in arranging their listener, for example making such meeting. They tends to imitate the commercial radio activities. This condition emerge a relationship gap between radio and their community.

This idea came out from Budi Hermanto, Capacity and Network Building Manager of Combine Resource Institution (CRI) on the workshop of Community Radio Management held by Padang Pariaman and Pariaman City Community Radio Network at Bahana FM Community Radio in Pariaman City (9-10/01/2010). The workshops attended by 23 participants from Padang Sago FM Radio, Kiambang FM Radio, Bahana FM Radio, and Suandri FM Radio.

This workshop is a series of the strengthening community radio program after earthquake in Padang Pariaman. The organizing committee is Padang Pariaman and Pariaman City Community Radio Network which established since in November 2009. The participants on this workshop were discuss about the basic principles of community radio, the relationship between radio and their community, and also the evaluation of radio programming.

"If you can not absorb the community interest, the gab between the radio and its community will become more wider. That is the reason why the community must involves in the programs development. All the radio activist have to do is to arrange how's the program package,” Budi said.

Since the workshop material transferred by various game method, the participants were enthusiast. Those materials is also helps the radio to evaluate their previous broadcast programs. Rian Sukri (28), activists of Padang Sago Community Radio promises to apply the knowledge that he got from the workshop to improve radio services.

Recently, Community Radio FM Padang Sago was preparing permits to Local Indonesian Broadcasting Commission (Komisi Penyiaran Indonesia Daerah/KPID) West Sumatra. Padang Sago FM is going to applicate this knowledges and experiences to appropriate design radio programs in Padang Sago. (Sabar Rina, Adriani Zulivan, Yossy Suparyo)

Sunday, January 24, 2010

Community Radio Network of Padang Pariaman Support Disaster Management System

Community Radio is playing very significant role in disaster information management system. Community radio in Padang Pariaman, West Sumatra can play significant role in disaster management through promoting preparedness, warning and rehabilitation programs before, during and after any disaster in the “red” areas. During the disaster phase community radio can standby and function in warning dissemination in local language/accents.

According of Sabar Rina, Manager of Padang Sago Community Radio 107 FM, local young people form a volunteer group as community radio listeners club and can work using radio messages for effective publicity for readiness. Futhermore, community radio can forecast availability of first aid sources and vulnerable area for immediate evacuation.

“If all communication ways are disrupted during the disaster phase, community radio linkage government control room within liaison with NGOs and donor agencies,” Rina said.

In post-disaster phase, community radio can broadcast programs and messages on management of deaths and disposal of wastage, restoration of safe water supply and basic sanitation, promotion of alternative livelihood options, appropriate technology for restoration of communications, start immediate need assessment through pre selected volunteers, organize and coordinate relief operations by mobilizing local resources, and prioritize primary health care services.

“For the effective role of community radio in disaster management, the community radio staff should be properly motivated and radio programs should be designed with much emphasis on the disaster prepared,” Hendri Ikhsan, a activist of Kiambang FM, said.

Recently, Combine Resource Institution (CRI) and Community Radio Network of Padang Pariaman District (Bahana FM, Padang Sago FM, Kiambang Fm, and Suandri FM) is promoting the advocacy with the government in relation to community radio with other organizations since its emergence.

January 2010, Kanal Besuki Timur (KBT) is On Air

Many nonfactual or manipulated information are the reason for young people in Besuki Village, Jabon, Sidoarjo District, East Java to build their own radio, Kanal Besuki Timur (KBT). It name comes from a river in their village, called Kanal river, while “Besuki Timur” from the side area where they live–the west area is drowned by the mud float. Before the mud disaster, its village consist of 25 subdistricts and now decreased into 7. It is in the east side of the village.

This program made to support information exchange and communication between the villager as a way to increase people participation actively, especially in the disaster prone area. East Besuki village located on the border of the hot-mud’s dike. The community radio is expected as the way to reducing disaster risk by its faster, instant and accurate; and also to give balances information about the issues that developed. It is needed to muffled potential conflict.

By now, the KBT team consist of 12 member, three of them are broadcaster who are the students of senior high school. This is their first experience being radio broadcasters. Eko (18) said that it is not easy being a radio broadcaster. “KBT Radio is different from others. Beside plays the musics, it is also gives information to the villagers. You have to have well-speaking knowledge and able to be creates words.”

Nowadays, some of the villagers don’t know yet the existence of KBT radio. Day after day, the radio team optimist that this radio will be in the heart of all villager.

Women Role in Disaster Information Management in West Sumatra’s Earthquake

A powerful earthquake of 7,6 on the Richter scale shook of West Sumatra on the afternoon of September 30, 2009. The earthquake caused major 1,195 people died, 619 people seriously injured, 1,179 people slightly injured, 2 people missing, and 6,554 people had to evacuate. There were 119,005 houses damaged, 73,733 houses middle damaged, and 78,802 lightly damaged. The disaster emerge sadness and deep trauma to the entire population. More ten thousand people requiring long term assistance.

However, it build the awareness of community radio activists in Padang Pariaman District to develop a Disaster Information System Based Community (DIS-BC). The reason to DIS-BC development is the government's performance in handling the victims and the distribution of aid was bad. The aid distribution through a long chain of bureaucracy so that victims were not handled quickly. The condition was aggravated by government-owned data not accurate, such as the number of victims and the needs of victims.

Data accuracy is very important in disaster management. If data is accurate, policy-makers will take quickly right policy. Disaster data management should be done before any disaster come. Governments and citizens will know how the level of vulnerability of the area, the needs of victims, evacuation route and the safe locations to evacuation. Unfortunately, when the earthquake happened in West Sumatra in September 30, 2009 it is just a dream. This condition was impact to big quantitative victim of disaster in this area.

Padang Sago FM was established to response the problems above. In early, Padang Sago FM, emergency response radio, was established by the Combine Resource Institution (CRI), a non government organization in Jogjakarta. With simple equipments, a week after the earthquake, Padang Sago FM started broadcasting on 107 FM frequencies. Furthermore, local people involve to radio activities, include women and children.

Padang Sago FM studio is located in Simpang Pelita, Korong Lapau Bayur, Nagari Koto Dalam, Padang Sago Subdistrict, Padang Pariaman Regency. Padang Sago Subdistrict consists of three villages, Nagari Koto Dalam, Nagari Koto Baru, and Nagari Batu Kalang. This area is very badly damaged although no residents had died. Thousands of houses and government buildings were severely damaged. Broadcasts activities start from 08.00 am until 11:00 pm using the Indonesian language and Minang language.

The first aims, to make the listener aware that live in disaster areas. Padang Sago FM make Public Service Announcement (PSA). In addition, the daily broadcasting Padang Sago FM consist of how to access aid from various donor agencies, how to pass safely transition, how to build earthquake-resistant houses, overcome health problems arise after earthquake, and a general overview of the course of disaster management efforts. In other hand, to get the validity data they applied the principles of journalism. Furthermore, the news was broadcast at 07.00-08.00 pm. It called Kabar Nagari.

Women Involvement in Radio

In the early establishment of the radio, the involvement of women was very limited. The lack of the women involvement in community radio cause women's issues was marginalized. The issue can not properly appreciated. For example, most women in West Sumatra hold the Islamic religion and Minang tradition. When they are in the barracks, they are difficult to get privacy to change clothes and breastfeeding.

The impact of male domination, the radio management less sensitive to domestic roles that are still imposed on women. A simple example is the choosing of meeting time. As a result of their domestic roles, women can not attend meetings at 04.30 pm until 07.00 pm and at night. At that time, most women cook and serve the household needs. In Padang Sago, people think that women who active outside the home after 09.00 pm is still considered unethical.
Junichi Hibino, Chairman of AMARC Japan Working Group in Padang Sago FM

Although the number of women activists in Padang Sago FM are not a lot, they can play a major role in the development of radio. Desmawati (22) is very good at holding program managers. She develops broadcasting activities using Minang traditional communication principles (mandaki, mandatar, malereng, manurun) and it makes Padang Sago FM loved by his audience. Another female announcer, like Anisa, Rani, Rini, Mimi, and Devi has a good respon from the audience. Finally, the citizens allow their daughter to participate in their community radio activities.

To maintain the involvement of women in community radio, they implement "discrimination" policy. On the strategic position, it is fulfilled by women. The author is director of the radio. Two of four strategic position are women. Padang Sago FM considers the cultural roles inherent in women. Padang Sago FM avoids meeting on women's time.

The involvement of women in radio led to women's issues disseminated via radio. For example, Padang Sago FM inform women in the evacuation place. The reporter interview some women who are breastfeeding, pregnant, menstruating, and old age. They are vulnerable groups during disasters. Without good nutrition, milk production for their children will decrease and the result is less nutrition for their baby. The women who are in pregnant whose malnutrition can result in miscarriage. Problems also arise in women who were menstruating at the time, they need a sanitary napkin.

From the above information, Padang Sago FM aware the impact of disasters that different for women and men. Because of the differences effects so they also require different assistance. Ironically, during the emergency response, assistance provided to victims are often only of instant noodles, rice, and lots of canned food. These items are clearly important but not sufficient. Donors should not forget underwear, women dress in accordance with the local culture (long dress), your child's diet, sanitary napkins, and etc.

Besides women, Padang Sago FM involve children in broadcasting activities. Initiative to broadcast emerged from themselves. After school, children come to play in the studio. They practice the computer and watch the radio crew announcing activities. Then, they request to be trained as broadcaster. Devi (11) is one of children broadcasters who have brought radio program for 90 minutes. She is host of Sehat Bareng Komunitas (popular health tips) program which aired 01.00 pm until 02.30 pm. Today, Devi is a student of Padang Sago 07 Elementary School.

In previous broadcast activity, Devi accompanied by senior broadcasters, then she advanced to bring a broadcast program. The presence of children announcer bring different colour in the radio. The teachers and parents strongly support these activities. At their airing program, most of the listener are adult. They excited and got new experiences from it.

Sabar Rina, Director of Padang Sago FM

How to Write for News Radio

Learning how to write news for community radio broadcasting can be a challenge because it is a format that has its own rules. First and foremost, radio news scripts are written for listeners, not readers or viewers.

According to Yossy Suparyo, the knowledge management specialist of Combine Resource Institution, writing for radio is writing for the blind! Your listener cannot see what you see, so you need to use word, adjectives and adverbs to paint pictures and describe atmosphere.

"Describe in enough and detail what you can see," Yossy Said.

Follow these basic guidelines for writing a community radio news script:

1. Know that radio news writing is aimed toward the listener, so the writing should be clear and simple. No words that are difficult to pronounce, nor require a dictionary to understand.

2. Write an outline. Determine the key elements of the story. These are the essential components. Ask yourself: Who? What? Why? Where? When?

3. Write a tease. This will be used with other teases to whet the appetite of the listener before the news is aired. This should not be longer than a sentence.

4. Write a lead sentence. This is used to grab the listener's attention. Be concise and accurate with your lead.

5. Write the body. Include all necessary facts, figures, and main points. Radio news stories are typically 100 to 300 words, based on the amount of time dedicated to the story. 100 words equates to approximately 30 seconds of air time.

6. Write a story conclusion. This should be no longer than a sentence or two that sums up the key points of the story.

7. Format your script in accordance with basic radio script guidelines which may vary from radio station to radio station.

8. Fact-check the script and review your grammar. Present the script to a copy-editor that might find mistakes you overlooked.